Friday, June 16, 2017

THE FIRST BRITISH COLONIAL FOOTSTEPS IN GARISSA DISTRICT

The first British colonial settlement in Garissa district was at a place called Mansabubu at the beginning of the nineteenth century, as recollected by Sultan Deghow. Fed by the meandering Tana River–a river that is 1,000km long and trickles from the Aberdare Mountains in central Kenya and drains near Kipini, the first colonial settlers were brought to Mansabubu by Sultan Sambul, Deghow’s grandfather, from Lamu that is located along Kenya’s maritime coast bordering Somalia. Regardless of Omani Arabs having heavy presence along the Eastern Africa coast, the British had the mandate to traverse the Indian Ocean because, though preceded by an agreement with the United States in 1833, the Sultanate of Zanzibar had signed treaties with European Powers such as France in 1862 and Germany in 1886 respectively. However, it was the 1886 agreement that made the Sultanate’s sovereignty unchallenged.[i]

With competition rising among the European powers on how to expand their influence in Africa, the British administrators felt it was time to venture into the hinterlands. As explained by Nene Mburu, Sultan Stamboul (Sambul), was a fully recognized traditional elder of the Ogaden clan–a man who was in the third generation among the Somalis who settled in NFD­–and so was the Borana Chief Haji Galma Dida who was the son of Dida Dayo–a senior chief who was the overlord of Wajir during the British Colonial Administration.[ii] By 1923 after the death of Dida Dayo and the coronation of his son, the territorial stretch of Borana land that previously included Wajir, Garbatulla, Isiolo and Marsabit was subsequently reduced after Somali scuffles with the Borana resulted in the Borana being pushed westward, as Mburu maintains.

There have been long and simmering tensions between the Borana and Somali over land accumulation for centuries with the Somali using sheer force to evict the Borana from their ancestral lands. Cattle rustling were other factors that contributed to tribal altercations. With their herds of livestock, Somalis have been in search of greener pastures and getting closer to the Ewaso Nyiro River would have been a natural delight. Though not a perennial water source that flowed permanently year-round, it was a temporary river that nourished the Borana and Samburu ethnic groups for years. Despite that, for Somalis, access to this water source would have been a natural resource that would give relief to their large herds and sustain human life. Somalis have long had a history of migration, and the determination to conquer new territories either from rival Somalis or from other stable ethnic groups such as agro-pastoral groups and hunters and gatherers living in thriving dense forests. Likewise, having been adept at the psychology of assimilation, no wonder, and conflict has been a thriving factor[iii] in their pastoral economy. As a superpower in their areas of influence at that time, it boggles the mind how Somalis emulated the psychology of warfare–a political trend that is practiced by modern superpowers of today, that war spurs the economy, reduces unemployment, and creates new opportunities while raising the rating of the leader only when victory is achieved over the rival enemy.

To further define the abstraction of Somali assimilation, the term implies intermixing, intermingling, integrating, incorporating, and amalgamating with other Somali clans or sub-clans or with other ethnic groups or allowing slaves and those seeking safety to be part of the Somali clan realm. However, not all Somali clans practiced the notion of assimilation. No wonder, according to popular opinion, the Ogaden that is part of the greater and populous Daarood clan are the most tolerant and welcoming of other besieged and mortified Somalis. In fact, many Somalis who are familiar with the Somali culture attest to the fact that the Ogaden exemplify a political organization where one can be a member of the clan, marry from, pay diya or mag (blood money) and quit when necessary. The connotation Sheegad, which many writers or researchers define as ‘pretenders’ could have been better interpreted as ‘to claim’, ‘be part of’ or be a ‘claimant’. Somalis living in northern Somalia regard the name Sheegad as dishonorable while in northern Kenya, it has been acceptable in the past.[iv]

British Colonial Chieftainship

The British creation of chieftainship in later years among the tribes that had strength and a strong presence in the former NFD was a means to usher in indirect rule–a political subterfuge defined in later years as a ‘divide and rule tactics’. The creation of imaginary lines by the colonial powers came to define geographical boundaries that would serve as maritime and specifically defined landmarks by their own surveyors, which in the end placed a wedge between people of close consanguinity. The covetousness of the colonial powers and their mistreatment of the black race were beyond divinely guided, rightly thinking human comprehension. It is the same land and maritime demarcation that is the source of contention among many African nations to this day. Intra and inter-state wars continue to undermine the way forward to progress for many Africans whose leaders were drawn from the legacies of colonialism.

At that time in history, in Wamo, an expansive land that stretched from Kismayu in southern Somalia and into some parts of Kenya’s Northeastern region, there were internecine wars among the various Ogaden sub-clans. With no reconciliation in sight and the prospect of peace and stability diminishing, and hunger and deprivation skyrocketing, some of the sub-clans decided to disperse to various destinations equal in enormity to a phenomenon in the year 1937–a perilous era Somalis dubbed ‘Sannadkii kala Carar’[v] which translates to the ‘Year of Pandemonium’. In that same year–1937–Somalis experienced abundance of milk and therefore they named it ‘Sannadkii Caana Arag.’ There was an outbreak of locust invasion in 1935, meaning Somali-inhabited areas or forcefully captured lands have been prone to natural disasters in the 19th century and beyond.

Defining Afmadow

The main headquarter of the Ogaden clans before the Abdwak clan bid the rest goodbye, was a small settlement called Afmadow (Afmadu in English) in the middle of the current Lower Juba Valley of southern Somalia. Almost 110 kilometers (68 miles) from the Port City of Kismayu[vi], Afmadow cherishes to have a long history. The settlement had no reliable water source before Somali migration to the region. However, it had had a hundred and fourteen boreholes when the British Colonial Administration finalized the digging of water catchments and water wells in 1944–a year before the Second World War ended. This era is known as “Sannadkii Dhul Qod” in Somali which translates to ‘the introduction of dams’ and coincides with the Ogaden subclan Mohamed Zubeir and Bartire War.

Somali oral historians attribute Afmadow to have been the name of an Orma, Oromo, or Wardei woman while others give credit to a Somali woman. Both narratives will be taken into context. Once upon a time, the Talamogge and another Ogaden sub-clan decided to fight on a certain day and the venue would be under an acacia tree within Afmadow periphery. However, the war never materialized due to reconciliations among elders. Regardless, unaware that the war had been halted, a few warriors came to the designated battleground dressed in full battle gear. Instead, they found a dark-mouthed non-Somali girl. Thus, was born the name Afmadow.

In another narrative, at a time of immense suffering due to water shortages where people and their livestock were dying whole scale, a renowned Saint came up with a startling proposition. He proposed that the most decent, blameless, and untarnished woman–a woman of unspoiled character who is loyal to her husband to be brought before a convention of elders. People got bewildered, baffled, surprised, and appalled at the saint’s feigned premise. With mouths agape, wide-eyed, and able hearing ears directed at the saint’s announcement, a man from the Asharaf clan who lived among the Ogaden and was married to a woman whose name was Afmadow, raised his hand and promised to turn over his wife. After being handed over, the saint commanded the woman to undress before her husband in full view of the conveners. When she was about to untie the figure of eight  knot known to Somalis as Gareys or Garxir, he yowled at her to stop her indecent actions and fasten the knot. Instead, he gave her a spear and told her to dig between her feet exactly where she was standing. Immediately she hit the ground with the double-edged sharp spear–a spear that was sharper than Wilkinson Sword and Nacet Blade combined, a fountain of water from the Ewaso Nyiro River that runs underground started to sprout up like the Yellowstone Fountain of the U.S. in the state of Wyoming.

Thus, the name Afmadow (Dark Mouth)–an indication of beauty–is derived from the name of a woman from the Rer Mohamed sub-clan. Mohamed was the uncle of the Abdalla sub-clan who are collectively known as Samawadal.[vii] The two sub-clans have a great presence in the towns of Ijara and Masalani that are part of Garissa County. Samawadal and Abdiwak are cousins and are together called Talamogge. The Samawadal and Abdiwak have always lived together in peace, sharing water and pasturage, going to war as one entity, and engaging in intermarriages, though, at times, they would fight among themselves. However, in case of altercations, problems would be solved through the application of customary laws known as “Xeer”, where the elderly would deliberate under the shadow of a tree and finally come to conclusions.

Leaving no stone unturned, the Abdiwak Sultan in Afmadow, sensing impending dangers related to war, famine and drought, and diseases and death, sent his own two surveyors known as Sahan to search for water. After a month of absence they arrived at a place close to Sankuri known as Daloolo where their sights caught a mighty flowing River. On inquiring from the inhabitants who were mostly of the Wardei ethnic group–the same community who were evicted by the Somalis from southern Somalia, they were told it was called Ganana Maro. Rejoicing at the sight of the river, the two surveyors, after being hosted by the Wardei, set off to return to Afmadow. On returning to Afmadow, the two surveyors returned to the king with the goods news that caused jubilation among his subjects and consternation in others. It was here Abdiwak and their fellow kinsmen took the extraordinarily extensive trek of retracing the footsteps of the previous land examiners.

The forward trek to unknown destinations was never a free ride to a land of opportunities as it bore painful repercussions and beautiful fruits. The regions ahead were either devoid of humans, empty and isolated or heavily populated by formidable, irreconcilable and irrepressible men who fought tooth and nail to defend their territorial integrity from outside aggression and multitudes of ferocious and cunning wild beasts that devoured livestock and man at will. Regardless of the death and destruction encountered en route, the forward push to greener pastures materialized for the king and his followers–a heroic act of manhood later on to be emulated by other Ogaden sub-clans after the dust had settled. With most African tribes and wild beasts eventually subdued by the successive kingdoms of Abdiwak, it was time for rehabilitating the surviving, captured antagonists and a time for recuperation, reproduction and forging alliance with the most volatile of all humans–the Whiteman.




[i] Mwaruvie, John. "The Ten Miles Coastal strip: An Examination of the Intricate Nature of Land Question at Kenyan Coast." (2011).
[ii] Mburu, Nene. Bandits on the border: the last frontier in the search for Somali unity. Red Sea Press, 2005.
[iii] Farah, Ibrahim, Abdirashid Hussein, and Jeremy Lind. "Deegaan, politics and war in Somalia." Scarcity and Surfeit. Institute for Security Studies. Pretoria, South Africa (2002): 320-356.
[iv] Schlee, Günther. Identities on the move: clanship and pastoralism in northern Kenya. Vol. 5. Manchester University Press, 1989.
[vi] Distance Between Cities Places On Map Distance Calculator. www.distancefromto.net. Retrieved  June 14, 2016
[vii] Interview with Mohamud Abdi Kassim, Masalani, Garissa, 14 June, 2016

ISLAM ILLUMINATED

How many powerful queens and kings have come and gone and will never return to us? Where is the Pharaoh who claimed to be god? You will tell me he was drowned and that his body has never been found. You're wrong. His corpse was retrieved from the salty water, was embalmed and preserved in a sarcophagus and he will remain in that state until the Day of Resurrection for humanity to see.Go to Egypt and visit the pyramids. He is there. Where are his two famous confidants, Ammon (Haamaan) and Korah (Qaaruun)? Despite being dead, they are being tormented.
Tell me, where is the powerful Nimrod? If you believe in Charles Darwin's 19th century Theory of Evolution, why not believe in past revealed books and the Grand Qur'an that has been perfected and protected by Allaah, The Beneficent, The Merciful?
How many transgressing generations were destroyed by fiery winds, deafening blasts, deluge, violent earthquakes, hell spewing volcanoes, furious hurricanes, gales, typhoons and tornadoes and will never return to this world?
What do you know of what is happening to the occupants of the graves some of who are in deep slumber and others burning and suffocating till the Day of Resurrection?
Don't you understand the contents of the Qur'an? Don't you see? Don't you reflect? Don't you ponder? Don't you hear?
Take a heavenward flight approximately 12 miles fixedly for 8-hours, then return to earth. You will not land at your previous departure point because the earth has moved.
How comes the earth is suspended, revolving and rotating day and night, yet all the oceans and rivers don't spill over? By the Power of Allaah, the mountains are stakes.
Imagine a veil is removed from your eyes and instantaneously your new vision is exposed to new creatures you have never seen or imagined before. Would you be terrified or amused by their sight?
Can you recollect when you were in your mom's womb and the stages you've been through?
If you will agree with me that you were formed from liquid, then how can you dispute with me creation without a father or creation from clay without a father and mother to be impossible?
We calculate the distance of stars from earth by light years. Yet, they are a decoration for the lower heaven and ease of navigation for you. So, imagine what is above them?
Why do we have different times and not a universal one?
We have eyes, ears and brains, but there are those who are deaf, dumb and blind because they have diseases in their hearts and The Creator has increased for them the diseases afflicting their faculties of thinking.
Don't tell me The Creator has partners, that there are two gods or many gods. How could these gods agree on power sharing if humans cannot?
There is only One Creator and His Name is Allaah. His name was in the Psalms (Zaboor) of David (Da'ood), the Torah (Tauraat) of Moses (Moosa) and the Evangel (Engeel) of Jesus (Eesa), but were deliberately deleted by men. The messages that were contained in those books have not been lost and are still with us up to this day without adulteration. They have been incorporated into and preserved in the Only Living Testament-the Qur'an that was revealed to Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets (Peace and Blessing of Allaah Be Upon Him).

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS IN THE QUR'AN

Ibn Kathir and the early scholars of Islam state that the Ten commandments are reiterated in two verses from the Quran.
“Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from, Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty- We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sins whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom God has forbidden, except for a just cause. This He has commanded you that you may understand. And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he or she attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (i.e. judge between men or give evidences) say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfil the Covenant of God. This He commands you, that you may remember.” (Quran 6:151-152)

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

SOMALI DIASPORA CHILDREN: SHACKLED BY DISTORTED MENTAL IMAGINATIONS


By Adan Makina
Nowadays, a look at how some of the Somali youth living in the Western Hemisphere prepare for their future upon graduating from high school is cause for alarm. By developing distorted mental imaginations, these youth who hail from disadvantaged backgrounds and broken families, find it difficult to heed the advises given by their school counselors because of preconceived established ideas ingrained in their minds that are hard to alter. Ironically, with falling school performances reported among school-going Somali children in Europe and North America, choosing the wrong careers after the gates of the schools are kept under lock and key create unease for any watchful educator and parent who wishes to see all kids remain in school until they are capable of handling their affairs. Even with plenty of financial aid and other grants available and reserved for those willing to partake in the furtherance of their education, the prospects of remaining in school diminishes for reasons best known to them.
Because of their obsessions with immediate jobs and some cash to propel them in to the murky waters of the underworld, these kids end up taking up menial jobs and often find themselves shoved in to contemptible and unprofessional fields like cab driving, janitorial, doormen, cooks, and the manufacturing industry considered to be the lowest paying in terms of job classifications. However, because of overabundance of narcotics and other mind altering drugs readily available in the streets, tardiness and ill-fated temptations usher them in to the corridors of social rejection and disobedience that ultimately lead them to rub shoulders with the law.
Thus, the youth who was touted to be a shining star unto himself, his family, and his nation, becomes a subject of condemnation when an unpardonable and strange act leads him to the gallows of a dreaded prison. Though many strait-laced, fortunate convicts who serve their sentences cautiously emerge out of the gates of dungeons with rosaries in hand as signs of repentance, the hard core ones who remain behind could find themselves rewarded with extended jail terms due to other horrible felonies committed while behind bars. Such sarcastic miscalculations in life may be attributed to poor parental and societal upbringing, lack of role models and mentors, resettling with careless and unfamiliar faces and families, failure to grasp the exhortations of the elderly, and taking the wrong path in life.
Also, the effects of the horrendous civil wars that separated family and friends, child abuse and neglect, familial indiscipline, parental drug addiction and illiteracy, abject poverty, and hordes of imperfections content in the social fabric they live in become the driving levers for their self-immolation or self-destruction. In addition, the social depravity of the host environment and the guest youth’s competition for space and recognition coupled with the desire to assimilate opens a path for unintended social interactions and exposure to malignant, apathetic, and alien cultures that easily consume the diminutive empathy exported from country of origin.
Furthermore, the harboring of a sense of inferiority by the novel guest and the ardent desire to participate in the affairs of the newly exposed locale tremendously alters, defaces or may even erase whatever little was left of his brain chemistry. The once exotic youth finds themselves immersed in an unfathomable bottomless pit commandeered by criminals of the most awful category. Societal fragmentation in the Diaspora, lack of extra-curricular activities, exposure to pornography, cinematographic obscenities, and lack of parental involvement in Parent Teacher Associations, are the deriding factors behind the collapse of the once youthful Somali Empire.
The stubborn outgrowth of filaments of animosity and the division of society along clan lines has never been so profound in Somali society before. While it is true that poor governance, foreign interference in Somali affairs, and lack of reconciliation between warring factions added to Somali calamity, what we should note with dismay is how the Diaspora’s disregard for unity and coherence culminated in the breakup of many who cherished trust, love, and unanimity in matters exclusive to the Somali people and nation.
The handouts and welfare benefits provided by the host nations to Somali societies and individual families are the main arteries that finance malevolent designs and the major propulsion engine of hatred in the Diaspora and in beleaguered Somalia. Wired via electronic remittances to Somali antagonistic forces on a monthly basis, these monies could be used to rejuvenate the education of Somali youth in the Diaspora and also those in impoverished Somalia.
While the number of Somali youth lagging behind bars in the Western Hemisphere could run in to the thousands, still there are an equal number of law abiding, sagacious, and hard working youth struggling to go beyond permanent barriers, travelling the hard road to prosperity, and effecting change by transforming the impossible in to the possible.
Adan Makina
WardheerNews
Email: adan.makina@gmail.com
————–
This article previously appeared on WardheerNews.

WARDHEERNEWS LOOKS INTO A NEW A NEW FUTURE


WardheerNews
Since its inception in November of 2004, WardheerNews has been going the extra mile to spearhead journalistic excellence and literary professionalism. Our editorial board members and our esteemed contributors have been working tirelessly by the day ensuring everything related to the online magazine and the radio station went according to plan.
In 2013, we saw WardheerNews move from the old HTML fashion to the modern database data retrieval system. The magazine now prides to have an enhanced digital database that can be navigated with ease. WardheerNews.com was created at a time when information about the Horn of Africa, in general, and Somalia in particular, was limited, scarce and one-sided. It  was created to fill that void.
WardheerNews was started by a group of visionary Somalis to create an equal platform of exchange and discussion. Soon after its launch, WardheerNews.com reached faraway places, to a great number of people hungry for the rich content it provided. Consequently, Somali intellectuals, healthcare professionals, women and youth found it as the intellectual forum to discuss and debate important issues.
The management of WardheerNews has numerous plans in the making that will elevate the online magazine’s international standing. With the approach of the New Year, WardheerNews editorial board is in the process of adding to its entertainment and recreation menu in the near future a print magazine circulation that will be available in select international newsstands and  a high definition television station that will be available to its diverse audience.
As we begin to make New Year resolutions and ponder what it has in store for every follower of WardheerNews, one thing is certain: Mr. Adan Makina, Chairman of our Editorial Board for the past year and half, is stepping down to pave the way for our incoming new Chairman, Khaliil Hassan, WDN head of News section who is expected to inject new innovations for the coming year and beyond.
For the period he was head of the Editorial Board, Mr. Makina constantly displayed exceptional leadership qualities with his infectious smile and humor. His ideas and suggestions always revealed his depth in understanding human nature and finding creative ways to solve nagging problems. For the foreseeable future, Mr. Makina will continue to be a member of our editorial board. Besides, he will  head our book reviews section and continue to conduct interviews of major players in the community such as political figures, scholars, writers, filmmakers, and activists.
WardheerNews
Email: Admin@wardheernews.com

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Reconstruction of Arguments

Reconstructing an argument is part of critical thinking and a means to understanding what others have written regardless of whether what they relate is right or wrong. People with profound knowledge of literature–especially writers–deliver arguments in different forms and that is why it is crucial for a student to master the art of critical thinking.

There are several steps to follow as a form of guidance as outlined below:
1.      Before doing anything else, reading the article with utmost care and devotion should be given top priority. It would be futile to begin writing without understanding the message contained in the article.

2.      The second attempt would be restating key ideas in every paragraph or groups of paragraphs into a sentence or even two sentences according to your expertise and linguistic preferences. Even though it could take time, it is worth the effort since it will be a foundation and a stepping stone for other steps.
3.      Give attention to summary sentences and consider grouping them together especially the ones that cover major issues with identical points of concern. Differentiate sentences that pinpoint the central argument from those detailing the background discussion. Group together the themes in the discussion or study. Avoid rewriting the article for this is academically a form of plagiarism.
4.      At this juncture, you should be able to regroup the main argument sentences into thematic order. In a nutshell, the end result should be a compacted form of argument in a standard-form version.
5.      Apply the standard version form for your general argument by grouping together the summary reconstruction for your outline.

6.      In the introduction part, expose the issues with the article, the author’s position, and then concisely draw an outline of the argument using the standard version form outlined in #4.

The Review:
1.      Read very carefully with devotion.
2.      Restate the key main ideas.
3.      Identify the main themes in the discussion and unearth the logical formulation.
4.      Compact the main ideas in each topic into a standardized reconstructed form.
5.      As an outline, apply the standardized reconstruction form.
6.      Finally, begin formulating an appealing introduction that captures readers’ attention. 
7.      That’s it!


Friday, March 17, 2017

AFKAAGA EDEB U YEEL

Labo gabdhood oo Soomaali ah ayaa waxay raaceen gaari caasi ah. Wax yar kadib, wuxuu gaarigii socdaba, rakaab kale ayaa loo joojiyay waxaana soo galay nin madow, aad u dheer oo madax weynaa.
Soomaali af kama aammustee, gabdhihii mid kamid ah ayaa intey is celin weyday tiri, "na heedhe, ninku madax weynaa."
Ninkii oo ku hadlaya af Soomaali fasiix ah u jawaabay gabadhii afka dheereyd. Wuxuu ku yiri, "ina adeer isku xishoow afka waa lagaa badshaaye."
Gabdhihii waxaa ka soo haray yaab iyo ammakaag. Xariifka wuxuu yaraantiisi ku koray Xerada Qaxootiga Kakuma, Kiiniya.
Dhacdadan waxay ka dhacday dalka Yemen.

LIBAAXADDII JIKADA

Soomaalida qurbaha ku nool wey meelo galgal badanyihiin. Taasina waxaa ku kallifeysaa sidey ku heli lahaayeen nolol maalmeedkooda iyo xoogaa dheeri ah illeyn maata gaajeysan ayaa ka danbeysaaye.
Waa mar kalee, haddana waa dalka Yemen. Gabadh Soomaaliyeed ayaa waxaa shaqo ku saabsan nadaafadda laga siiyey guri uu lahaa nin Janan ahaa oo goor danbe ku naf waayi doona diyaarad nooca qumaatiga u kacda oo ay cillad farsamo soo ridday.
Gabadhii waxay cabbaar shaqeysaba, waxaa la ogaadey in ay si wanaagsan u taqaan cunto karinta. Xaaski Jananka ayaa waxay gabadhii u xil saartay in Jananka ay u noqoto cunto kariye.
Cuntada ay kariso, xitaa carruurta ayaa ku dagaallami jiray. Haddey noqoto saambuuska marka aad goosato aan laheyn saliid dililiqeysa oo aan dharka kaa wasakheyn, baasta alfoorno oo dhadhan macaan iyo udeyg ku soo jiidanaya, bariiska bilaaw iyo biriyaani.
Subax baa Janankii gabadhii quraac ka dalbaday weyna u keentay waloow uu ka maqnaa khubuskii uu jeclaa ee uu ku goosan jiray. Gabadhii buu ka codsaday in ay u keento khubus waxayna u sheegtay in suuqa laga soo waayey.
Wuxuu faray bal in ay qaboojiyaha wax un ka raadiso.Wax yar kadib ayey ku soo noqotay una sheegtay in waxa ay qaboojiyaha ku soo aragtay aheyn wax uu cuni karo. "Waxba igama geline, xitaa hadduu toddobaad yiillay ii soo kululee iina keen", ayuu faray inantii weyna u keentay. Intuu ku quraacday khubuskii qamiirka ahaa, kana dhergay ayuu u mahad naqay gabadhii.
Wax yar kadib ayuu u yeeray gabadhii kuna yiri, "dad baan haaysan khubuskaasi qamiirmay ee weligaa cunto ha qubin."

'NASAB DHIMMANKII' NASABOOBAY

In kastoo uu Soomaali ku dhex noolaa illaa iyo yaraantiisi oo uu la dhanqan ahaa, la diin ahaa, la af iyo la lahjadba ahaa, magtana la bixin jiray, nasiib darro noloshiisa waxaa ibtileeyay faanka laga faani jiray, sida loo bah dili jiray iyo sida ba'an ee loo takoori jiray asaga iyo eheladiisaba. Yaraantiisi looma ogoleyn in uu la cayaaro carruurta Soomaalida ee ay isku da'da ahaayeen.
Ninkan oo magaciisu ahaa Dhummo, wuu gaabnaa. Tubaakada ayuu aad uu cuni jiray, dhiilaha ayuu cugi jiray, xoolaha iyo dadkuna ceelka ayuu u dhaamin jiray. Ninkan sidaasi uu firfircoonaa oo dad iyo duunyaba ta'kuleyn jirey, ayey Soomaali Maryooley takoori jirtey. Sanka ballaaran, timaha jareerta ah, iyo murqaha waaweyn un baa lagu nici jirey.
Wax kastoo billow lihi dhammaad buu leeyahaye, Dhummo waa tii loo soo qaaday carriga Mareykanka burburkii Soomaaliya kadib. Asagoo 20-jir ah, ayuu soo galay dalkii caanaha iyo malabka. Isla markiiba wuxuu ku biiray machad laga barto luuqadda afka Ingiriisiga. Labo sano kadib ayuu ka qalin jebiyey waxbarashadii luuqadda af Ingiriisiga.
Dhummo tacliintiisi ayuu iska sii watay. Asagoo diyaarinaya dhigiriigii ugu horreeyay, ayey is barteen gabar caddaan ah oo la yiraahdo Jennifer. Jennifer iyo ninkii lagu caayi jirey "Dhummo dhaadhaamiyow, Dhummo dhiilaha cugow", waxaa u billoowday jaceyl aan la maleyn kareyn cududdiisa.
Dhummo intuu jaammacadda ku jiray, ayuu si labo jibaar u shaqeyn jiray. Wuxuu sidaasi u sammeynayey in uu hanto gacalladiisa Jennifer goor danbena Soomaali wacdaro lama illaawaan ah uu u dhigo. Goor ay uga hartay hal sano qalin jebintooda, ayey wada aqal galeen. Goortey qalin jebiyeenna, waxaa Dhummo loo dhalay gabar iyo wiil mataana ah.
Dhummo Soomaalinimadiisi maskaxdiisa iyo maankiisaba marna kama haadin. Qoysaska Soomaaliyeed ee ay deriska yihiin waa un kuwii berisamaadkii ay ku wada noolaayeen Soomaaliya ee ka faani jiray. Dhummo iyo Jennifer waxay wada billaabeen Mastar dhigirii hal mar. Sannad iyo bar kadibna wey wada qalin jebiyeen.
Labaduba waxay heleen shaqooyiin wanaagsan, noloshoodina kor ayey u kacday ayadoo Soomaalidii kale weli lacagta ceerta qaadanaya. Baabuurro qurxoon ayey iibsadeen. Guri qurux badanna deyn bey ku qaateen. Halka ay guriga ka gateen waa un isla halkii horraan ay u degganaayeen meel aan ka fogeyn.
Galbihii goorta ay carruuraha cayaarayaan, Dhummo waa uu ka mamnuucay carruurtiisa in ay la cayaaraan kuwa Soomaalida waayo sida ula muuqatay, carruurta Soomaalida ayaa gummoobay oo noqday NASAB DHIMMAN kuwiisina NASAB.

Monday, October 24, 2016

A FEMALE APPROACH TO PEACEKEEPING

“A Female Approach to Peacekeeping”[i] by New York Times reporter Doreen Carvajal illustrates the leaps and bounds taken by women globally in peacekeeping operations especially in the West African nation of Liberia currently headed by Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf-an astute woman who is known by the nickname “Iron Lady”.  According to the writer, women started pioneering in peacekeeping missions during the Balkan Wars of the 90s and their numbers continue to skyrocket. By the time the article was written in 2010, the Head of the U.N. Mission in Liberia was Ellen Margrethe Loj of Denmark, a woman who was dedicated to the preservation of peace and nation building in countries ravaged by wars. By then, Nigeria and India were the leading contributors of women peacekeepers in the world.

According to figures released by the U.N., women are edging closer to men in peacekeeping missions. In the past five years alone, the number of female police officers serving U.N. peacekeeping operations around the world doubled with Liberia and Darfur taking the lead. Of the 12,867 men and women serving U.N. peacekeeping missions around the world as police officers, women account for roughly 6% or stand at 833.  Of the 1,159 peacekeepers from Nigeria currently in Liberia, 5% or 59 are women. The need for the service of women in peacekeeping activities has gone global. Women account for 14% of the 1,354 peacekeepers in Liberia.

Men peacekeepers tend to behave better when women peacekeepers are present. Since women peacekeepers started arriving in Liberia, crimes like armed robberies, rape of women and girls, child molestations, and other types of startling transgressions have been considerably reduced with the help of the locals. After a long day patrolling the dusty streets of Monrovia, Syalus Maharana, an Indian operations commander, spends an hour of her time to mother her child in India by telling bedtime stories via video conferencing.

Even though women peacekeepers suffer nostalgia and depression during their tenure of duties overseas, to the locals they remain intimidating and sober. The major endearing factor driving women to such strenuous peacekeeping missions is the appealing financial opportunities offered by the U.N.  

Having marked the 100th anniversary of International Women’s Day on March 8, the United Nations is intensifying its recruitment efforts by finding more women for its global peacekeeping missions. For many poor countries, contributing women peacekeepers to the U.N. global peace efforts means added value in terms of moneymaking. As it already pledged, the nation of Bangladesh is expected to dispatch a new unit of women peacekeepers to the U.N. peace initiatives. Thus, we learn from this story that women peacekeepers are as effective and efficient as their male counterparts in global peacekeeping operations if not profoundly more effective and that the demand for women peacekeepers will rise in the future.

Sunday, October 16, 2016

GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
International Organizations
Introduction
Globalization: Effects, Backlash, and Challenges
Globalization and Information Technology
Globalization and Income Inequalities
Cultural Dimensions of Globalization
Consequences of Globalization
Appendices
Index
Bibliography
  
Introduction
Since the end of the devastating World War II, the political, social, and economic management of the world we live in has been tremendously altered with marvelous global cooperation getting off the ground followed by scrupulous regional transformations sprouting almost in every continent regardless of whether it is in Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. International nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) include organizations like the International Committee of the Red Cross} (ICRC) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) also known as Doctors Without Borders. On the other hand, intergovernmental organizations also known as international governmental organizations (IGOs) include the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe (CoE), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the European Union (EU). Intergovernmental military alliances like the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the European Security and Defense Policy are exclusively for defense purposes and often involve risky commitments. The Warsaw Treaty (1955-91) was a treaty of mutual defense or in other words a treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between the former member-states the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. International corporations such as Coca Cola and Toyota are referred to as multinational corporations (MNCs). [[i]

The first documented multinational corporation in modern history was the Dutch East India Company that was established in 1602 to carry out 21-year colonial activities in Asia. Also known as Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, it was arguably the world’s first mega-corporation and was reputed to have transported approximately a million Europeans to Asia ultimately leading to the establishment of permanent settlements with Java in Indonesia becoming the first station in 1603. Statistically, DOV is presumed to have utilized 4,785 ships for its seafaring missions and reportedly accumulated a net income of 2.5 million tons of commercial Asian goods that were in the end traded in European markets for significant profit.  To deter Dutch monopoly of trade in Asia, the English (later British) followed suit by instituting a formidable ocean trade constituting 2,690 ships formed exclusively to perform trade with the East Indies though it eventually became one restricted to trading with the Indian subcontinent and China.

The need for formidable and invincible alliances and alleviation of nuclear deterrence were the major factors behind the proliferation of regional and international organizations while the formation of multinational corporations evolved as a result of the profusion of capitalism in the western hemisphere and leanings toward democratic governance which hitherto predisposed humans to search for the virtues of liberty and justice. “The global political system has been undergoing both integrative trends, brought about by increases in communication and trade, and disintegrative trends, such as weapons proliferation, global environmental deterioration, and ethnic conflict.” [[ii]]  Major wars, such as World War I, World War II, and the Cold War brought about noteworthy changes in hypothetical explanations of world political affairs with the emergence of realism, liberalism, and constructivism followed by novel critiques of radicalism and feminism culminating in relative theatrical gains in thoughts and actions among hegemons, emerging powers, and nation-states.

International Organizations (IOs)
The hard work and dedication of responsible IOs operating in many parts of the world may not be denied as select numbers have been in the forefront of alleviating disease, hunger, and other forms of social sufferings found in the most deprived parts of the world. A good example is the internationally renowned organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) that was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1999 in recognition of its members' continuous effort to provide medical care in acute crises, as well as raising international awareness of potential humanitarian disasters. [[iii]] There have been several documented cases of environmental degradation by MNCs as happened in Liberia a few years ago where Firestone was found to have created extensive environmental degradation and to have allowed its local employees live in squalid conditions. Seldom, MNCs have been accused of practicing multifarious forms of exploitation, manipulate child labor, and cause environmental degradation in regions governed by corrupt regimes where laws are lax and ineffective. [[iv]] As long as MNCs abide by the internationally recognized environmental standards management set forth by ISO 14000, there shouldn’t be any problem for MNCs operating from far a field in developing countries. Another negative argument by some writers or scholars is that MNCs drastically changes the infrastructure of host countries and at the same time alter the culture and tradition of the locals they encounter. Besides the cultural and environmental erosion created by these foreign-based international institutions, a global effort can be effected to put a cap on further degradation of cultures, traditions, and the environment not only for the present but for posterity.

“The IMF, World Bank and the other international development banks have one thing in common; they are public sector institutions, with no requirement to turn a profit.” [[v]]

Globalization: Effects, Backlash, and Challenges
Globalization is the collective integration of political, economical, and cultural efforts across the globe. It emphasizes and incorporates trade, technology, health, Culture, environment, migration, investment, banking, and money issues, development, women and globalization, international law and organizations, energy, human rights, global education, and global media. While globalization has been applauded in different regions as a strong allocator of resources, distrust and indecision to grasp its benefits has left many lagging behind in the field of economic globalization. The consequences of off-shoring and outsourcing has had detrimental effects on the dwindling North American job market. The net loss of U.S. exports means the net loss of U.S. jobs. NAFTA and economic globalization have compromised long-term growth both in Mexico and in the United States. [[vi]]

In many regions of the world especially in North America, there is cause for small-businesses to celebrate because of the added advantages of globalization. Increased production, enhanced communication, quicker movement of goods, and services as a result of better transportation and the internet commerce have resulted in unparalleled opportunities for small and medium-sized businesses. "Globalization and the Internet have created unprecedented opportunities for small and medium-sized businesses in Canada" [[vii]]

Globalization and Information Technology
A clear picture of how globalization and information technology seem to transform the world has best been noted by Thomas L. Friedman, author of The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, where in his discussion with Jaithirth “Jerry” Rao, owner of the Indian accounting firm MphasiS, at the Leela Palace Hotel, the respected author states “…anything that can be digitized can be outsourced to either the smartest or the cheapest producer, or both.” [[viii]] Today’s globalization is not yesterday’s globalization. The current trend in globalization and information technology is one of leaps and bounds-a phenomenon noted since the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Berlin Wall.

Globalization and Income Inequalities
Attributing globalization to the downfall of the poor is outrageously a misguided notion. With the exception of a few global leaders with inadequate, unconvincing, ineffective, and unsatisfactory beliefs toward globalization, the rest of the world remains convinced that globalization does more good than harm to the poor. Those leaders opposed to globalization have the tendency to suppress the four components that are harbinger for growth and development: economic integration, technology, political engagement, and personal contacts. Trade, direct foreign investments, capital inflows and outflows, and net factor income are determining factors in economic integration. Table 1 shows the globalization index for 2005. International phone traffic, international travel and tourism, and cross border capital transfers, such as bank loans, securities or aid, and remittances, which are defined as transfers of money by workers to their home countries, are defined as personal contacts. [[ix]] The use of the internet, the number of available hosts, and secure internet servers define technology. Both technology transfers and personal contacts drastically reduce income inequalities within nations. Political engagement refers to membership in international organizations, the number of diplomatic missions a nation may have, and the number of diplomatic responsibilities or engagements for any given nation within the broader U.N. Security Council.  As shown in Table 2, the Heshmati index places greater weight on technology than Kearny. The larger PC1 figures represent aggressive globalization and also represent the first three components of globalization: economic integration, personal contacts, and integration.

Cultural Dimensions of Globalization
Despite globalization integrating capital, technology, and information across national borders, tension exists between the globalization system and ancient forces of culture, geography, tradition, and community. [[x]] Despite the surfacing of threats from the combined forces of resistance, undoubtedly globalization will go beyond the current novel innovations of world wide web, internet, e-commerce, PayPal, microchips, and fiber optic cable because the propensity of forces that are for globalization outnumber those that are against its propagation.

Consequences of Globalization
A stunning 1.1 billion of the world’s population live below the poverty line, which is equivalent to US$1. Table 3 defines data on poverty by region with Sub-Saharan Africa taking the lead while countries in the western hemisphere remain excluded due to their realization of considerable wealth and consumerism. 

Appendices
Index
Bibliography



















Table 1
Source: Kearny (2005), from “Measuring Globalization,” Page 55


Table 2
Table 3
                                                            2001 Poverty Statistics, using poverty line of $1 (1993)
                                                            Total               HCI Poverty   Headcount                
                                                            Number          Number          Index (HCI)     Poverty          
                                                            (millions)        (millions)        (percent)        gap*   
Sub-Saharan Africa                          524                  241                  46                    20
East Asia and the Pacific                 1747                245                  14                    3
South Asia                                         1351                432                  32                    7
Eastern Europe                                461                  14                    3                      0.8
Middle East and North Africa          222                  4                      2                      0.5
Latin America and the Caribbean   499                  50                    10                    3
*Poverty gap gives the aggregate income shortfall as a percentage of aggregate consumption.
 Source:  World Bank (2006)



Table 4
Source: Dagdeviren et al. (2001)




[[ii]] Charles W. Kegley, Jr. and Shannon B. Blanton, World Politics: Trend and Transformation. Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street, Boston, MA 02210
[[vi]] Kelly-Kate S. Pease, International Organizations: Perspectives on Governance in the Twenty-First Century, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.
[[vii]] The title of a story by Lopez-Pacheco appearing on the National Post in Sept 2002.
[[viii]] Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, Picador, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010.
[[x]] Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 19 Union Square West, New York 10003